When focusing on denomination, two important distinctions must be made. First, the religious affiliations in which respondents were raised must be differentiated from those with which they currently identify. Several measures in this study were created in a similar fashion and may be summarized briefly here.
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Batteries of items, or questions, to tap both behaviors and attitudes were answered on Likert-type formats. These items then were subjected to exploratory factor analysis, using principal factoring iterations see Kim, ; Rummel, ; and Zeller and Carmines, Based on the magnitudes of the loadings and their rotational patterns, items that did not appear to contribute to the underlying variable in question were eliminated.
Because the common variance explained was sufficiently high on first factors for all cases, and because the remaining factors had low eigenvalues and low loadings, only the first factors are employed here. Those items of a given battery meeting the criterion of a factor loading of.
The ranges of the summed scales, their means and standard deviations also are found in Table 1. Table 1. The Macho scale, which is the major dependent variable in this analysis, illustrates the operations summarized in Table 1. Villemez and Touhey built a scale of twenty-eight items which with slight variations to make them applicable to both Canadian and American respondents were administered using five-point, Likert-type response categories.
As shown, eighteen of these items clustered together to account for 85 percent of the variance, had factor loadings greater than. When the eighteen items are summed into a scale, it has a range from 18 to 85, a mean of Two broad dimensions of religiosity commonly found in the literature include religious ideology or belief and ritualism or behavior. Religious Belief is derived from a set of twelve items having four response categories. Religious Behavior, or ritualism, includes twenty items of a personal nature such as praying, reading the Bible and of a congregational nature such as attending meetings, contributing money to a church , presented on a five-point scale.
Four of these items form a subset termed the Church Participation scale to illustrate formal, congregational involvement.
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Finally, although many argue the case for multidimensionality, the items in the Belief and Behavior scales are combined to form the Overall Religiosity scale. In short, at least for these data, as reflected in Table 1, a common dimension seems to underlie these religiosity items. Respondents were presented with several aspects of the self and requested to rank the importance of each. Based on these assumptions, the denominations are grouped into five categories according to their mean scores on the four-item Fundamentalism scale.
Both the seven non-Christians and the respondents from denominations with only one member were excluded since the latter may indicate individual rather than group fundamentalism. Because attitudes and values are at least partially shaped during youth, selected measures of religious background may prove important to ideas about gender. For example, a question was posed to assess whether respondents still held to the beliefs taught in church while growing up Persistent Believer. A series of demographic and background questions, measured by single indicators, were asked in order to serve as explanatory or control variables.
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Some of these demographic and self-evaluative measures are explored in the analysis for their impact on the relationships between religion and gender. Data Analysis. Statistical analysis is largely descriptive and mainly exploratory. Initially, the hypotheses adumbrated earlier are cursorily examined using simple zero-order correlation coefficients. Where the independent variables are categorical in nature for example, Denomination , dummy variable analysis is entertained. The commonly supported position of Labovitz is followed, treating ordinal data as if they were interval.
Finally, because no causal claims are made, four models are explored by nonhierarchical stepwise regression. This multivariate procedure allows several variables to enter into the predictive equation in the order of the magnitude of variance explained in the dependent variable, i. By altering the predictor variables in various models, hints of the relative impact of different factors, interaction effects, evidence of spuriousness, and so on are suggested. This procedure should lead to the development of a more sophisticated model in this important field of endeavor.
Because the sample is composed of university students and must be considered nonrandom and nonrepresentative, tests of statistical significance are not presented. That is, inference is not the question in this exploratory analysis. With sample sizes of the magnitudes presented in this study, most correlation coefficients R2s are statistically significant. Simple Relationships.
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This approach both offers evidence of validity and fits the findings to a body of literature on abortion. Table 2 contains the correlations which suggest several tentative conclusions. First, it is rather obvious that the data support McMurry and Martin et al. The measures are very similar to those used by Barrish and Welch; consequently, differences cannot be accounted for solely by different items. Some might suggest that the relatively large number of Mormon students, who tend to be both religiously involved and traditional on gender attitudes, may have biased the results somewhat.
Comparative sociologists argue for the selection of research sites that allow for maximum variation in the independent variable s ; the strategy in the present study meets this requirement. We cannot focus on the Mormons as an important group without a similar sampling procedure. Finally, an earlier paper Brinkerhoff and MacKie, using somewhat different measures on a random sample of an older, urban population corroborates the findings presented here. To interpret the table further, note that the Overall Religiosity scale accounts for Sex is the best predictor of the Macho scale among the demographic variables, unless the religious affiliation of the parents is considered to be a background factor.
Sex is less powerful as a predictor of the abortion attitude, however. Although at first glance these coefficients appear somewhat weak, in comparison with other studies, the Rs are quite respectable. Furthermore, when comparing the religious variables as predictors of gender attitudes with the demographic variables for example, SES , one can only conclude that they are substantial.
Second, the pattern is consistent across the Macho scale and the two single indicators of gender. The higher the religiosity, the more conservative one is on matters of gender. Interestingly, and in agreement with Martin et al. In all three cases it is a stronger correlate than is childhood affiliation. Bear in mind that for this analysis Religious Affiliation and Identification have been classified into five groupings: Religious Nones, Catholics, Mainline Protestants, Conservative Christians or Fundamentalists , and Mormons are treated as dummy variables.
Based on previous research Brinkerhoff and MacKie, , even stronger relationships would be expected to result if more specific classifications were employed, such as Presbyterians, Pentecos-tals, Methodists, etc. Third, selected variables must be considered correlates and not causal in nature.
As a variable the Moral Majority scale seems to be strongly related to Macho and to both abortion items. Caution must be exercised in considering this finding in any causal sense; rather, it is probably another measure of conservativism which bears a distinctive religious connotation and, therefore, correlates highly with Macho.
Indeed, this would lead to the prediction that Moral Majority also should correlate highly with current religious identification, just as Macho does although the data are not presented here, the R2 is. Similarly, the self-report of political views, although not as highly related, also must be considered another general measure of conservativism.
However, is it really a nonreligious variable?
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Both the Bible college and BYU were selected for the study because they, in fact, are religious institutions. BYU is made up mainly of Mormon youth who are among those of this age group most strongly committed to the church, and undoubtedly the Bible college also is attended by strongly committed Conservative Christians; that is, the most committed youth may be in attendance at these schools rather than at alternative schools.
The religious factors undoubtedly interact with the University variable to influence the relationship with gender attitudes. These interaction effects are examined later in the analysis to discover if it is the religious factor, or conversely the University factor, that correlates with conservative gender attitudes. It probably can be assumed that religion, in a time-ordering perspective, occurred prior to University attendance. In any event both religious identification and university are strongly related.
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Treating the variables at the nominal level, the Lambda coefficient is. Time and space do not permit the discussion of other correlates in any depth, but it should be noted that self-perception as a religious person is much more strongly correlated with gender attitudes than is perception of self as gender, that is, as a male or female person. Table 2. Categorical Predictors. The data in Table 2 provide some information about the direction of the relationships for selected variables; that is, overall, the greater the religiosity, the more traditional the gender attitudes.
However, the categorical variables such as denomination, sex, marital status, and university do not disclose equivalent information regarding direction; that is, the coefficients do not indicate which classes are more conservative for example, are males or females more conservative? Therefore, the data in Table 3 go beyond the size of the coefficients for some of those nominal variables for which dummy variable analysis was employed earlier.
Table 3. Table 3 illustrates that Current Religious Identification is strongly related to gender attitudes. These data indicate that the Mormons are only slightly more conservative on gender attitudes than are the Fundamentalists, followed by the Mainline Protestants and then the Catholics. On matters regarding abortion, the Mormons and Fundamentalists are always more conservative than the Catholics.
Interpreting the relationships between denomination and gender attitudes must be done with considerable caution due to the nature of the sample. Over 95 percent of the Mormons were sampled from BYU, while approximately 65 percent of the Conservative Christians came from the Bible college. Both groups may attract the most traditional or conservative of Mormon and fundamentalist youth. Mainline Protestants and Catholics, if sampled from religiously sponsored institutions, may be relatively more conservative than those examined here from the Universities of Calgary and Nebraska.
The earlier Brinkerhoff and MacKie study with a random sample of older adults corroborate the findings presented here. Mormons and Conservative Christians are more traditional on gender attitudes. The additional caveat that must be included involves the age of the respondents. With regard to other categorical variables, as expected females are more egalitarian than males.
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Respondents who are single, followed by those who are married, tend to be most conservative. Finally, on the University variable, those who attend the Bible college are slightly more conservative than BYU students which might be expected, given the denominational characteristics of the schools , while those from the University of Calgary are the most egalitarian. Some Exploratory Models. Up to this point, scales have been constructed, and selected simple bivariate and regression coefficients have been examined.
These results suggest that the grouping of religious factors are more strongly associated with gender attitudes than are the background or demographic variables. Since these factors such as denomination and sex may interact to influence gender attitude for example, Macho , multivariate techniques must be brought to bear on these relationships. This will enable an overall assessment of the impact of different variables on the gender attitude measures.
This multiple regression analysis is divided into four models based both on technical concerns and on the theoretical and empirical import of the variables employed for prediction. Multiple regression requires the use of dummy variables for nominal level, or categorical, variables such as Denomination or University. Because more than two sets of dummy variables used simultaneously in an equation render interpretation somewhat difficult, this analysis is limited to a single dummy variable, Current Denomination Identification. In a stepwise multiple regression approach, the option of deciding when a variable enters into the explanatory schema equation exists; however, unless the dummy variables are entered in at the beginning, the interpretation may become problematic.